What makes a person successful?
I've always believed that a person is the sum total of all their experiences and opportunites and this book backs that up! There is no such thing a self made person - how sucessful you are is rooted in the environment you grew up in, the cultural legacy you inherit. Depending on your chosen area it also depends on when you were born, how wealthy your parents are (if you have the luxury of lots of spare time for practice and parents willing to run you between classes etc), how lucky you are and whether you take the opportunities that come your way.
The chapter on how Korean Air turned their accident record around was horrifying (the flight recordings were astonishing) but ultimately so straightforward. Trying to re-train their air crew so they would speak up if they thought the Captain was wrong, insisting that they learn english. Breaking them out of their cultural legacy - where their superiors were not to be questioned regardless of the situation they found themselves in was so basic, yet so profound.
The idea that a long school vacation actually does more damage than good to children from poor families - again a simple idea, but has far reaching implications.